The suspects allegedly obtained parts from combat helicopters and planes in Russia, and illegally transported them out of the country, the FSB said. The group included individuals born in Ukraine and an unnamed Central Asian nation, according to the agency.
The security service published footage of the sting operation and arrest of two men. One of them was shown with his hands covered in ink, often used to mark bait money, glowing in ultraviolet light.
The video also demonstrated a row of crates and bags, presumably containing goods prepared for smuggling, as well as various pieces of equipment and a large sum of money in rubles.
The press release said the FSB had seized more than 100 military parts, along with $117,000 and €59,000 ($63,000) in cash.
Under Russian law, the suspects face up to 12 years in prison on smuggling charges. A Moscow court has ordered they be kept in pre-trial detention, the FSB said.